What’s in a name? A call to reframe non-communicable diseases

July 10, 2017

Source: UK Health Forum

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Date of publication: July 2017

Publication type: Blog post

In a nutshell: “The public health world needs to upgrade definitions and descriptions as the term NCDs is now anachronistic and possibly harmful to the progression of effective and efficient public policy. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases could be much better described and framed, which could help with increasing wider understanding…”

Length of publication: 1 webpage

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS library if you cannot access the full text. Follow this link to find your local NHS library.

Acknowledgement:  UK Health Forum


Development and validation of QRISK3 risk prediction algorithms to estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study

June 8, 2017

Source: BMJ

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Date of publication: May 2017

Publication type: Study

In a nutshell: Results 363 565 incident cases of cardiovascular disease were identified in the derivation cohort during follow-up arising from 50.8 million person years of observation. All new risk factors considered met the model inclusion criteria except for HIV/AIDS, which was not statistically significant. The models had good calibration and high levels of explained variation and discrimination. In women, the algorithm explained 59.6% of the variation in time to diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (R2, with higher values indicating more variation), and the D statistic was 2.48 and Harrell’s C statistic was 0.88 (both measures of discrimination, with higher values indicating better discrimination). The corresponding values for men were 54.8%, 2.26, and 0.86. Overall performance of the updated QRISK3 algorithms was similar to the QRISK2 algorithms.  Conclusion Updated QRISK3 risk prediction models were developed and validated. The inclusion of additional clinical variables in QRISK3 (chronic kidney disease, a measure of systolic blood pressure variability (standard deviation of repeated measures), migraine, corticosteroids, SLE, atypical antipsychotics, severe mental illness, and erectile dysfunction) can help enable doctors to identify those at most risk of heart disease and stroke.

Length of publication: 16 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS library if you cannot access the full text. Follow this link to find your local NHS library.

Acknowledgement: BMJ              


PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease

May 18, 2017

Source: Cochrane Library

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Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Review

In a nutshell: Over short-term to medium-term follow-up, PCSK9 inhibitors reduced LDL-C. Studies with medium-term follow-up time (longest median follow-up recorded was 26 months) reported that PCSK9 inhibitors (compared with placebo) decreased CVD risk but may have increased the risk of any adverse events (driven by SPIRE-1 and -2 trials). Available evidence suggests that PCSK9 inhibitor use probably leads to little or no difference in mortality. Evidence on relative efficacy and safety when PCSK9 inhibitors were compared with active treatments was of low to very low quality (GRADE); follow-up times were short and events were few. Large trials with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate PCSK9 inhibitors versus active treatments as well as placebo. Owing to the predominant inclusion of high-risk patients in these studies, applicability of results to primary prevention is limited. Finally, estimated risk differences indicate that PCSK9 inhibitors only modestly change absolute risks (often to less than 1%).

Length of publication: 111 pages

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Acknowledgement:  Cochrane Library                


Fixed-dose combination therapy for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases

April 24, 2017

Source: Cochrane Library

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Date of publication: March 2017

Publication type: Systematic Review

In a nutshell: Background – Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet ASCVD risk factor control and secondary prevention rates remain low. A fixed-dose combination of blood pressure- and cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet treatments into a single pill, or polypill, has been proposed as one strategy to reduce the global burden of ASCVD.

Objectives – To determine the effect of fixed-dose combination therapy on all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal ASCVD events, and adverse events. We also sought to determine the effect of fixed-dose combination therapy on blood pressure, lipids, adherence, discontinuation rates, health-related quality of life, and costs.

Length of publication: 1 webpage

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Acknowledgement: Cochrane Library              


Vitamin C supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

April 24, 2017

Source: Cochrane Library

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Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Systematic Review

In a nutshell: Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient and powerful antioxidant. Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent. This review aims to determine the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation as a single supplement for the primary prevention of CVD.

Length of publication: 1 webpage

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Acknowledgement: Cochrane Library              


Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

February 14, 2017

Source: Circulation

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Date of publication: January 2017

Publication type: Scientific Statement

In a nutshell: Discusses the cardiometabolic health effects of eating patterns: skipping breakfast, intermittent fasting, meal frequency (number of daily eating occasions), and timing of eating and propose definitions for meals, snacks, and eating occasions for use in research.

Length of publication: 27 pages

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Acknowledgement:    Circulation


Bad childhood experiences ‘mean chronic illness more likely’

November 15, 2016

Source: BBC Health News

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Date of publication: November 2016

Publication type: News item

In a nutshell: Children who are exposed to abuse, domestic violence or other stresses are far more likely to develop long term health problems, says new research.

The Public Health Wales study looks at adverse experiences in childhood (ACEs) which include parents separating.

Children with four or more ACEs, around 14%, are three times more likely to get lung or heart disease later in life.

One senior health figure said instead of “mending broken adults” a focus was needed on “building stronger children”.

Length of publication: 1 website

Some important notes:  Please contact your local NHS library if you cannot access the full text. Follow this link to find your local NHS library.

Acknowledgement:    BBC Health News